Module Four


A citation should contain all the necessary information to identify your source and lead others to it. Examples of typical citations are shown below, but there are many variations depending on the type of source and style used. Consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. for details.

APA Style Book Citation

book citation

APA Style Journal Citation


Electronic Journal Article Citation with DOI

A DOI, or digital object identifier, is a unique string of numbers and letters assigned to a source. When the DOI is available, it is the only retrieval information you need to provide for your citation. For example:

Harrison, J. (2008, September). The vagaries of vegetarianism. Ratio, 21(3), 286-299. :10.1111/j.1467-9329.2007.00402.x

Journal Articles from a Library Database

These can be cited exactly like the print version. According to the APA Publication Manual, it is not necessary to include the name of the database. However, your instructor may want to know to make it easier to find the article. See Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) in OWL for more suggestions on this, scroll down to Article from a Database. If in doubt, check with your instructor.

Website citation, with no author or date - APA style:

website citation

Many webpages do not include author information or the date of publication. If there is no author, the title of the page is listed first, followed by the date in parentheses. If there is no date, use n.d. Do not include the date you accessed the website unless the information is likely to change, as a blog or a wiki.

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